By John J. O’Grady, President, Local 704, American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE Local 704), Chicago, Illinois
The word “patronage” is derived from the Latin word patronus for patron. Patronage was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (patron) and his client. The relationship was hierarchical, but obligations were mutual. The patronus was the protector, sponsor, and benefactor of the client; the technical term for this protection was patrocinium. Benefits a patron might confer include legal representation in court, loans of money, influencing business deals or marriages, and supporting a client’s candidacy for political office. In return, the client was expected to offer his services to his patron as needed.
The Federal bureaucracy in the years after the Civil War involved extensive patronage in selecting officials and supervising their work. That system had evolved in the early nineteenth century, and relied on the well-known political adage, “to the victor belong the spoils.” When a Democrat was elected President, all of the Republican appointees were swept out of office, and vice versa. The idea of rotation in office caused by election of a candidate from the other party was thought to be “democratic.” Continue reading “That Good Ol’ Patronage System!”